Read in 4 minutes
This blogpost was prompted by a comment on a Whatsapp group about dietary goitrogens and thyroid disease. That discussion was related to soy. 
If you have hypothyroidism,the most important question that you’d like to be answered is:
Should you avoid food like soy and cruciferous vegetables (dietary goitrogens)?
According to Wikipedia “Goitrogens are substances (whether in drugs, chemicals, or foods) that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland. “
( In this post i will not discuss drugs or endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect thyroid function).
What are the common food that well-meaning healthcare practitioners sometimes ask you to avoid if you have hypothyroidism?
The commonest ones are soy and cruciferous vegetables. Cabbage, kale,broccoli, brussels sprouts,bok choy, cauliflower are the commonest cruciferous vegetables that you eat.
The alleged association of soy with goitre has probably originated in animal studies and few isolated case studies reported in the sixties ,where few infants fed a soy formula had developed goitre.
What is the true association of soy and thyroid function? In an article in the journal Thyroid (2006) the authors looked at 14 trials (though thyroid function was not the primary health outcome in any trial). They commented that “the findings provide little evidence that in euthyroid, iodine-replete individuals, soy foods, or isoflavones adversely affect thyroid function.”
What about soy interfering with supplemental thyroid hormone absorption?
An interesting case study reported in Endocrine Practice: May 2001 discusses a patient who needed very high doses of thyroid hormone replacement after she had undergone a thyroid gland removal for cancer.On enquiry it turned out that she was taking a “soy-cocktail “protein supplement immediately after taking her synthetic thyroid hormone! Once the intake of both were separated, she needed a lesser dose of thyroid hormone!So this was not a problem of soy being a goitrogen, but a problem of food interfering with  thyroid pill absorption.
Is it only soy that interferes with supplemental thyroid hormone absorption? NO!
Iron, calcium, proton-pump inhibitors like Omeprazole,coffee, cholestyramine and other food also interfere with thyroid absorption. 
This is why we recommend that you should take your thyroid pills on an empty stomach. Preferably avoid eating or drinking anything (other than water) one hour before and one hour afer taking your thyroid meds.Another suggestion from my practice partner Dr.Natasha Iyer is to take your thyroid meds in the middle of the night if you wake up to use the washroom. But no nibbling then!
What about cruciferous vegetables as goitrogens?
In animal studies very high intake of cabbage and turnip have been associated with hypothyroidism.However, animal studies cannot be extrapolated to humans!
A study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, May 2010 talks about an 88 year old Chinese woman who was brought to the emergency department in myxedema coma (severe hypothyroidism leading to coma).She did not have thyroid dysfunction before. She was taking 1 to 1.5 kilograms of raw bok choy everyday for several months in the belief that it would take care of her diabetes! I don’t know whether her diabetes was affected of but it sure sent her into coma!
However, a small study which  looked at 10 people who ate 150 grams of cooked Brussels Sprouts everyday for 4 weeks, did not show any adverse effects on thyroid function.
  • If you have hypothyroidism you can eat soy, cabbage, bok choy, cauliflower, broccoli, kale as long as you do not over-indulge!
  • Supplemental thyroid hormones should be taken away from food or supplements for best absorption.
You may be interested in reading the following posts:
(Watch for post on iodine and thyroid to be posted later).
  1. Bell, MB, FACE, David SH, and Fernando Ovalle, MD. “Use of soy protein supplement and resultant need for increased dose of levothyroxine.”Endocrine Practice 7.3 (2001): 193-194.
  2. Chu, Michael, and Terry F. Seltzer. “Myxedema coma induced by ingestion of raw bok choy.” New England Journal of Medicine 362.20 (2010): 1945-1946.
  3. McMillan, M., E. A. Spinks, and G. R. Fenwick. “Preliminary observations on the effect of dietary brussels sprouts on thyroid function.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 5.1 (1986): 15-19.


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According to Psychologist and Neuroscientist, Dr. Richard Davidson PhD, “Well-being is a skill.”

What does this mean? This means that you can teach yourself to experience Well-Being!


Without going into scientific definitions of hedonia (pleasure or momentary well-being) and eudaimonia (flourishing, living a meaningful life), I will simply state that Well-Being is a condition you are familiar with when you don’t have it! You certainly do not experience well-being when you are dealing with a chronic Autoimmune condition!

Dr. Davidson has been at the forefront of scientifically studying compassion and kindness practices and bringing this into mainstream science. He says that Well-Being includes 4 constituents. These 4 constituents are based on hard nosed neuroscientific evidence.


  • Resilience
  • Attention
  • Positive Outlook
  • Generosity

RESILIENCE: It is the ability to maintain high levels of well-being in the face of adversity. How soon do you recover from negative events? Research suggests that mental training in mindfulness meditation can increase brain circuits involved in resilience. However, these changes are evident in long-term meditators, in those who have six-or seven thousand hours of meditation. I have not reached there yet but it is certainly something I aspire for!

Though resilience requires many hours of cumulative practice, smaller doses of mindfulness practice or loving-kindness or compassion meditation have shown great benefits too.

ATTENTION:”A wandering mind is an unhappy mind.” This was the title of an article in Science (2010), by Dr. Matthew A. Killingsworth and Dr. Daniel T. Gilbert, from Harvard University. They studied mind wandering through an iPhone app and this is what they found:

  • People’s minds wandered frequently, regardless of what they were doing. Mind wandering occurred in 46.9% of the people studied.
  • The nature of people’s activities had only a modest impact on whether their minds wandered.
  • People were less happy when their minds were wandering than when they were not and this was true during all activities.
  • (This is profound): Mind wandering was generally the cause, and not merely the consequence, of unhappiness. What people were thinking was a better predictor of their happiness than was what they were doing.

What can you do to stop mind wandering? If you are new to contemplative practice why not try a guided mindfulness app or CD or drop in on a workshop or go for a mindful walk? Find something that you like.

POSITIVE OUTLOOK:How do you look at your life? Is the glass half-empty or is it half-full? As Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn, Professor Emeritus at University of Massachusetts, says “If you are breathing, then you have more things going right for you than wrong.”

GENEROSITY: When people engage in generous behavior they activate brain circuits that are important for Well-Being. You can try loving-kindness meditation. Most importantly, are you kind to yourself?

 NEUROPLASTICITY: Why is this concept important?

Neuroplasticity means that your brain can change in response to training and experiences. It can change for the better or for the worse. Why not be deliberate about the way your brain changes, because it IS going to change anyway!

Until some years ago we were taught that the brain does not make new nerve cells as an adult (adult neurogenesis) and it cannot make new neural pathways. This concept has been turned around completely now. Studies have shown that we can make new nerve tissue! High levels of stress can destroy nerve tissue, but mindfulness practice has shown increase in brain tissue thickness in just 8 weeks of practice!


  • Meditation/Mindfulness Practice.
  • Practice loving-kindness meditation, especially to yourself!
  • Sleep!
  • Stop watching negative news on television! (unless that’s your profession).
  • Did you check your ACE (Adverse Childhood Experiences) score? ACE Score
  • Enjoy “Me-Time”.


  1. Richard J. Davidson is the William James and Vilas Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry and the Director of the Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior and the Founder of the Center for Healthy Minds at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA.
  2. Davidson, R. J., & Schuyler, B. S. (2015). Neuroscience of happiness. In J.F. Helliwell, R. Layard, & J. Sachs (Eds.), World Happiness (Chapter 5). New York, NY: The Earth Institute, Columbia University. PMCID: Policy Exempt.
  3. Killingsworth, Matthew A., and Daniel T. Gilbert. “A wandering mind is an unhappy mind.” Science 330.6006 (2010): 932-932. The app is “Track Your Happiness” available on iPhone.
  4. Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry research. 2011;191(1):36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006.
  5. Spalding, Kirsty L., et al. “Dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans.” Cell 153.6 (2013


Read in 8 minutes

Does stress induce Autoimmune Disease? Or is stress a cause of Autoimmunity? The precise answer to the question of whether stress is an inducing agent or a causative agent is in the realm of medical minutiae, but there is no doubt that stress has a major impact on your autoimmune disease. This is not new information for most of you. Many of you have experienced worsening of your symptoms soon after some stressful event in your life or you have even tried to blame your significant other for “causing” stress in your life! Though it is true that empathic stress (later blog post) can affect you, it is not stress that is the problem; it is how you deal with it that decides your health! We do need some amount of stress to be alive! Is it eustress (positive stress) or distress (negative stress) that is affecting you?

In my patient intake form I have a section that talks about how you gauge your stress levels. Most of you fill in your health-related stress as an 8 or 10 out of 10. (One lady said it was 11 out of 10!). For many of you this stress comes from the physical pain or the uncertainty of not knowing what happens tomorrow or from being unable to work or from the lack of response to a particular drug or various other factors. In this blogpost I would like to focus more on the solutions to address stress, rather than the problem.


Dr. Hans Selye, who is considered to be one of the pioneers of stress research, in 1936 defined stress as “The non-specific response of the body to any demand for change. Everyone knows what stress is, but nobody really knows.”


Some of the important factors affecting your stress response are:

  • Intrauterine influences-your mother’s stress when she was pregnant with you.
  • Your childhood experiences (ACE score, explained below)
  • Your gender
  • Your socioeconomic status
  • Your stress management strategies.

Intrauterine influences: Some of the factors that influence your stress response are operative when your mother was pregnant with you! There are many scientific studies that describe how stress experienced by women during pregnancy had adverse influence on the health of the children. The Dutch Winter Hunger Study and the Project Ice Storm study are among some of the often-quoted ones. The effects on the child depended on when during the mother’s pregnancy she had experienced the adversity. For example, children born to mothers who had experienced stress during the last part of their pregnancy were at higher risk for diabetes, heart disease and increased fat mass. The baby in the uterus predicted that it was being born into a world of scarcity and therefore needed to conserve fat! Some of these adverse health effects were trans-generational (affected at least 2 subsequent generations)! This is a truly fascinating field of study called Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DoHAD).


Dr. Vincent Felitti and Dr. Robert Anda’s landmark study of 1998 found a strong relationship between exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for many diseases in adults, including Autoimmune Disease. The higher the ACE score, the higher the incidence of disease. This effect was more pronounced in women and Autoimmune Disease.

We know that factors like sexual or physical abuse have a lot of adverse health effects, but when you check your ACE score you will realize that factors like living with an alcoholic caregiver or someone with mental illness or even being insulted or put down often has many adverse health influences. The point of this study is not to blame your parents but to realize how your health challenges may have an explanation in your childhood experiences and more importantly, these effects are not permanent! You can get better! A recent book Childhood Disrupted: How Your Biography Becomes Your Biology and How You Can Heal by Donna Jackson Nakazawa is a good book to read. Nakazawa is an award winning author who shares her journey through successfully dealing with Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS).


From Viletti, Anda Study on ACE

Do you know your ACE score? Check here to download the form and find out.


During consultation some of you tell me that you have “Adrenal Fatigue” or that your “Adrenals are fired”. Is that true? In medical terms what you mean is that you have a dysregulated stress response or the medical terms HPA Axis (Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis) dysfunction or Allostatic Load. What does it mean? (I will explain this concept in details on a webinar/series of blog posts later. On this post I’d like to focus on the solutions rather than the problem). Humans have had to deal with stress since time immemorial. What has changed now? Stress for our hunter-gatherer ancestors involved physical stress and was usually short-lived. Our bodies were used to short-lived stress and not the type of ongoing stress that we experience now.


  1. Meditation
  2. MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction)
  3. Expressive Writing
  4. Yoga
  5. Tai Chi,Qigong
  6. Art Therapy

As a long-term meditator and someone who has read many scientific papers on the neurobiology of meditation, this is my number one go-to when it comes to dealing with your dysregulated stress response. As I always say, the side effects of meditation are all good! What type of meditation should you do? My suggestion is to try several different ones and find out which one you like.

However, there are a few things to keep in mind when we talk about “therapeutic meditation”. • You need to elicit the Relaxation Response (RR) According to Dr. Herbert Benson from Harvard the relaxation response is a state of deep rest that elicits the following changes

  • Decreased heart rate
  • Decreased blood pressure
  • Decreased rate of breathing, and
  • Decreased muscle tension.

A Relaxation Response occurs when you meditate for at least 30-45 minutes. If you have never meditated before, start with 5-10 minutes of a guided meditation on an app or CD.

The best results of meditation have been shown in long-term meditators but meditating for as little as 8 weeks have shown many benefits!

  • MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction):

According to Dr. Jon Kabat Zinn “Mindfulness is awareness that arises through paying attention, on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally”. Dr. Kabat Zinn is Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Medical Centre, where they have done many clinical studies on the health effects of MBSR. In one study of patients with psoriasis, MBSR along with photo therapy (UVB) or photo chemotherapy (PUVA) was found to show faster clearing of skin lesions.


Professor James Pennebaker PhD, Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, in a study found that writing about traumatic events was associated with fewer visits to the health center! It also improved immune function. No one has to read your writing and please don’t bother with punctuation or grammar! Check here to read about the guidelines for Expressive Writing.

  • YOGA


  1. Schulz, Laura C. “The Dutch Hunger Winter and the developmental origins of health and disease.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.39 (2010): 16757-16758. Cao-Lei, Lei, et al.
  2. “DNA methylation signatures triggered by prenatal maternal stress exposure to a natural disaster: Project Ice Storm.” PLoS One9.9 (2014): e107653.
  3. Felitti, Vincent J., et al. “Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study.” American journal of preventive medicine 14.4 (1998): 245-258.
  4. Benson, Herbert, Martha M. Greenwood, and Helen Klemchuk. “The relaxation response: psychophysiological aspects and clinical applications.”The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 6.1-2 (1975): 87-98.
  5. Kabat-Zinn, Jon, et al. “Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing photo therapy (UVB) and photo chemotherapy (PUVA).” Psychosomatic medicine 60.5 (1998): 625-632.
  6. Pennebaker, James W. “Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.” Psychological science 8.3 (1997): 162-166.
  7. Book: Expressive Writing: Words that Heal by James W Pennebaker.


Read in 5 minutes

Any disease condition is a continuum. This means that you do not move from being well to having a disease overnight. Just as in Type 2 Diabetes, where you may have dysregulated blood sugar levels (Dysglycemia) many years before you develop the disease, so it is with many autoimmune conditions. You may have autoantibodies in your blood many years before developing the disease. Despite recent advances in treatment, there is a large percentage of people in whom long-term remission of the autoimmune disease cannot be achieved. This leads to poor quality of life and sometimes an early death. As this oft-quoted Benjamin Franklin axiom says “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”. Several scientific studies in the last few years have shown that you may have tell-tale evidence in your body 5-14 years before developing an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune condition develops when there is an interaction between your genes, an environmental trigger, your immune system and intestinal permeability. Your genes are present from birth but you do not develop an autoimmune disease until later. So what happens? In any autoimmune disease like it is in any other disease, it is an interaction between your genes and the environment that decides your health. As Dr. Eric Topol, a world-renowned cardiologist, geneticist, digital health pioneer, and medical innovator, says,“healthy aging is 100 percent due to genetics and 100 percent due to your environment”.

Autoimmune conditions develop when your immune system makes antibodies against your own tissue ( Autoimmunity).  This can lead to your healthy tissue losing their ability to function normally. For example, in Type 1 Diabetes, your own body makes antibodies against your own pancreatic cells which produce insulin. Insulin is the hormone that keeps your blood sugar in balance. The other, commoner diabetes is Type 2 Diabetes, in which antibodies to pancreatic tissue is not usually present. (Incidentally, these autoantibodies to pancreatic tissue have been found in about 5% of people otherwise diagnosed as Type 2 Diabetes.Watch for post on LADA , Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult).

In fact, a new staging approach is being used in Type 1 Diabetes taking into consideration the number of autoantibodies present. The staging starts well before the disease develops. This approach is used to prevent or delay the onset of the disease. Perhaps you can start prevention in your child when you are pregnant! Studies have shown the connection between vitamin D deficiency in mothers and autoimmunity in children.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): RA is an autoimmune disease affecting joints, which is characterized by chronic inflammation, causing pain and stiffness in the joints and a poor quality of life. Half of the patients with RA already have X-ray evidence of joint damage at the time of diagnosis. Like most diseases, RA can be treated better if diagnosed early. Therefore, the ability to predict the disease before joint damage occurs will contribute to a better quality of life.


  • Anyone who has a diagnosed autoimmune condition. Studies have shown that if you have one autoimmune disease, the chances of your developing another one are much higher than in the general population.
  • To test for disease progression in people with autoimmune diseases.
  • Anyone with hypothyroidism who has never been tested for thyroid antibodies.
  • First degree relatives (a person’s parent, sibling or child) of people with an autoimmune condition.
  • Patients with painful and stiff joints who haven’t received a definitive diagnosis of RA yet.
  • Anyone interested in better health.


A complete workup is very important. However, the following must be included.

  • C-Reactive Protein: This is a marker of inflammation.
  • Vitamin D3 levels: Vitamin D has a major role in your immune system. Low levels of this vitamin have been associated with increased risk of autoimmune diseases. (Vitamin D)
  • Antibodies: This list increases by the day. There are some specialized tests available in some countries which I have not listed here. (For those of you interested in the detailed medical information, please read the article in Autoimmunity reviews6 (2015) Damoiseaux, Jan, et al.).

This table has a short list:

                      ANTIBODY              AUTOIMMUNE CONDITION
ANA Lupus, Scleroderma, Autoimmune Hepatitis, Sjogren’s Disease, Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Juvenile Arthritis, Drug-induced Lupus.
Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (Anti CCP) Rheumatoid Arthritis
Anti TPO & Anti Thyroglobulin Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
Anti TSH Receptor Graves’ Disease
Anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies

Endomysial antibodies (EMA)

Deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies

(IgA & IgG tests)

Celiac Disease



Islet Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies (ICA) & Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies (GADA) Type 1 Diabetes, Late Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult(LADA).


Fig 1: Functional & Metabolic Medicine approach versus Conventional Approach:Fork in the road.

Fig 1


  • Meet a practitioner who understands the Functional & Metabolic Medicine approach to autoimmunity. There are no pharmaceutical drugs that can be used to prevent autoimmune diseases before they develop.
  • Stop smoking (Easier said than done!). Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with higher risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis in those susceptible to it.
  • Reduce toxic exposure.
  • Reduce inflammation.
  • Manage stress.
  • Maintain adequate Vitamin D3 levels (Vitamin D)


  • Avouac, Jérôme, Laure Gossec, and Maxime Dougados. “Diagnostic and predictive value of anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review.” Annals of the rheumatic diseases7 (2006): 845-851.
  • Catrina, Anca I., et al. “Lungs, joints and immunity against citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis.” Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11 (2014): 645-653.
  • Damoiseaux, Jan, et al. “Autoantibodies 2015: From diagnostic biomarkers toward prediction, prognosis and prevention.” Autoimmunity reviews6 (2015): 555-563.
  • Nielen, Markus MJ, et al. “Increased levels of C‐reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.” Arthritis & Rheumatism 8 (2004): 2423-2427.
  • Notkins, Abner Louis. “New predictors of disease.” Scientific American3 (2007): 72-79.


Read in 5 minutes

In recent years vitamin D deficiency has become like an epidemic all over the world. Besides autoimmunity, low vitamin D is associated with many diseases like heart disease, diabetes, cancer, hypothyroidism and many more. In fact, almost every cell in your body has vitamin D receptors.

There are 2 forms of vitamin D3 that you need to keep in mind. The one that is usually tested by most practitioners is Vitamin D3. Your body has to convert Vitamin D3 to the active form 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2 D3]. Most of you are familiar with the action of vitamin D in protecting your bones and maintaining blood calcium levels—the “classical” actions of vitamin However, scientific studies in the last several years have shown that vitamin D has several other actions as well—the “non-classical” actions. These are the actions of vitamin D on bone marrow, immune system, breasts, prostate, heart, muscles and intestine. With respect to autoimmune disease, the immunomodulatory (affecting your immune system) actions of Vitamin D are very important.

Vitamin D has the effect of increasing the activity of the innate immune system while restraining the activity of the adaptive immune system. (Chapter 9). This is the reason why adequate vitamin D3 levels are important for treating and perhaps preventing autoimmune diseases. A substantial number of studies have shown an association between low vitamin D and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases like Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA), Multiple Sclerosis(MS), Psoriasis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Type 1 Diabetes, Sjogrens, Lupus and many more. One example that is often cited is the increasing incidence of MS as one moves away from the equator. This is thought to be related to lesser sun exposure at higher latitudes than at the equator.


In autoimmune conditions sometimes measuring only vitamin D3 levels may not be enough. A few scientific studies have shown that some people with autoimmune disease have high levels of 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3. This is why sometimes we need to measure both the forms of vitamin D. I remember quite a few occasions when my patients (In India) have called me to say that the lab technician has informed them that “no doctor advises this (1,25 OH)2 D) test” so it is unnecessary!


Humans obtain vitamin D from either food (fortified), supplements or sunlight exposure. Your blood vitamin D levels depend on several factors.

Air quality: Excessive carbon particles in air from burning of fossil fuels may reduce the amount of vitamin D producing UVB rays from reaching your exposed skin.

Skin color: People with dark skin require about 10 fold more exposure to sunlight to produce the same amount of vitamin D as people with lighter skin color.

How much of your skin is exposed? The more bare skin the bigger the surface area of absorption of sunlight.

Use of sunscreens: Though theoretically use of sun screens can block the UVB rays, rarely do people use adequate quantities of sunscreen to bar all UVB from reaching their skin.

Gut Health: If you have unhealthy gut or you have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), your absorption of vitamin D from supplements is poor.

Liver and Kidney Health: Some types of liver disease may affect bile production. This can affect vitamin D function. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) the vital step of conversion of vitamin D to its active form is affected and this can lead to severe vitamin D deficiency. This is why patients with CKD have their 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 measured regularly.

Vitamin D receptor (VDR): If you have a genetic variation in VDR you may need a higher dose of vitamin D supplementation.

How much vitamin D3 you take will decide your blood levels of the vitamin. Very low or very high doses, may both be detrimental unless you monitor regularly.


How much supplementation of vitamin D you need depends on what your blood reports show. It may not be the same dose for everyone because of individual variations. However, it is a much better idea to take a smaller dose (4000-5000 IU) every day rather than a very high dose once a week or once a month. Sometimes a larger dose may be necessary for a short period of time until your blood levels are in the optimal range.

Ideally you should get your vitamin D from sensible sun exposure AND supplementation.


Low vitamin D levels have been associated with many autoimmune conditions like

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Multiple Sclerosis(MS), Psoriasis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Type 1 Diabetes, Sjogrens, Lupus and many more. This is because vitamin D affects your immune system function.

Maintaining adequate vitamin D levels may be a major way to prevent developing autoimmune disease. In fact, studies have shown that maintaining adequate vitamin D levels during childhood can prevent the development of Type 1 Diabetes by 29%! This is true for several other autoimmune conditions as well.

If you already have an autoimmune condition maintaining adequate vitamin D levels will make a major difference to how you heal the disease.

Some of you  may need to measure both vitamin D3 and 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3.